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Alessandro Poglietti (early 17th century – July 1683) was a Baroque organist and composer of unknown origin. In the second half of the 17th century Poglietti settled in Vienna, where he attained an extremely high reputation, becoming one of Leopold I's favorite composers. Poglietti held the post of court organist for 22 years from 1661 until his death during the Turkish siege that led into the Battle of Vienna.

Poglietti is primarily important for his keyboard music, particularly Rossignolo (1677), a collection of diverse pieces for harpsichord that includes a large number of imitations of natural sounds, and a collection of 12 ricercares, which was widely copied during his lifetime.

Nothing is known of Poglietti's origins and early life. Tuscany and Bohemia[citation needed] have been suggested as his possible birthplace. He may have received musical training in Rome or Bologna. Towards the 1660s Poglietti settled in Vienna: in early 1661 he became organist and Kapellmeister at the Jesuit church Zu den neun Chören der Engel (Nine Choirs of Angels), and on 1 July 1661 he was appointed organist of the court Kapelle under Leopold I (a post previously held by none other than Johann Jakob Froberger).

Poglietti held the court position until his death and apparently enjoyed a high reputation. The Emperor (who was a composer himself) was particularly fond of Poglietti, ennobling him and bestowing upon him the title Comes palatinus Caesareus, and the composer was also favored by the Pope, who made him a Knight of the Golden Spur, i.e., a member of the second highest Order of Papal Orders of Chivalry. Poglietti also had friends among Austrian nobility, among them Count Anton Franz von Collalto and Karl II von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn, Prince-Bishop of Olomouc—in 1672 Poglietti inherited estates near their residences. Another important connection of Poglietti's was with the Göttweig Benedictine Abbey, where he stayed as a guest a number of times, and where his only known opera was performed, in 1677. Composer Johann Kaspar Kerll was a personal friend of Poglietti's, and he may have known Johann Pachelbel, who visited Vienna in the mid-1670s.

Poglietti died in Vienna in July 1683, during the Turkish siege that eventually led into the Battle of Vienna. His death was lamented by Kerll in Missa in fletu solatium, published in Munich in 1689 as part of a collection of masses, Missae sex. Kerll's work includes continuo parts that specifically order the performer to "avoid consonances".

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